The [http://idea.ed.gov Individuals with Disabilities Education Act] (IDEA) ensures that children
with disabilities get the right [[Educational Justice|educational]] and related services. Before its passage in 1975, only one in five children with disabilities went to a public school.[http://www.air.org/resource/essa-students-disabilities]
According to the [https://www.ed.gov/ U.S. Department of Education’s] (DOE) IDEA informational resource:
“IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities . Infants and toddlers with disabilities (birth-2) and their families receive early intervention services under IDEA Part C. Children and youth (ages 3-21) receive special education and related services under IDEA Part B.” [ http:// idea.ed.gov/]
The DOE’s [https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/osep-idea.html Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative
Servivces] explains the law, its related regulations, and other policy guidance in detail.
Another DOE office, the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), develops research and other resources to help states, school districts, and families support students with disabilities. It handles projects both directly and through partners and grant recipients.[https://www.osepideasthatwork.org/]
with a disability has a right to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) under the IDEA[http://www.air.org/resource/essa-students-disabilities]. The Supreme Court has found the definition of a FAPE to mean special education and related services that “(A) have been provided at public expenses, under public supervision and direction, and without charge ; (B) meet the standards of the State educational agency ; (C) include an appropriate preschool, elementary, or secondary school education in the State involved, and (D) are provided in conformity with the individualized education program (IEP). "
Appropriate IEPs are “reasonably calculated to enable the child to receive educational benefits.”[https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/458/176] In Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District, the court decided that IDEA requires a child’s IEP "must be appropriately ambitious in light of his (sic) circumstances," rejecting the "merely more than the bare minimum" (or de minimis) test applied by the Tenth Circuit, finding instead that schools are required to show that an “IEP is reasonably calculated to enable the child to make progress appropriate in light of his (sic) circumstances.”[https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/16pdf/15-827_0pm1.pdf]